Insulation is a thermal transmitter blocker of heat or cold, preventing thermal energy from passing through. A properly insulated house will stay cool in the summer and warm during the winter. It traps both heat and cold in your home and slows down thermal energy loss. The more you have, the slower it is to lose heat or cooling in your home.
During winter and summer, a functional attic will have an air intake that comes through the soffits and circulates upwards through the baffles. The cool air circulation will then move towards the exit from the roof ventilators. In addition, it will have a minimum of R50 loose-fill insulation. This will help reduce energy costs and create an even temperature between floors.
In winter conditions, as seen in the image above, a functional attic with proper ventilation and insulation will exhibit even snow cover on the roof, and a dysfunctional attic will have uneven snow cover and ice. In a dysfunctional attic with little to no insulation or improper ventilation, the hot air and moisture build-up in the attic, resulting in a cold upper floor and energy loss. Poor ventilation condensation from the roof causes interior water damage. Condensation build-up on the attic ceiling will cause mildew and wood rot. With improper ventilation like blocked soffits, this moisture will build on the rooftop and create ice dams.
In summer conditions, as seen in the image above, a functional attic can properly circulate airflow and efficiently remove warm air through the exhaust vent. In a dysfunctional attic, your air conditioning unit will work overtime as you have static hot air radiating into your house because of the minimal insulation and or blocked ventilation. The intensive heat will then damage your rooftop shingles. Intern, this will increase your expenses as your air conditioning unit will break down often from running all the time on top of seeing zero to no change in temperatures in your home, leaving you in discomfort.